Jane Y. McCallum Papers, Austin History Center. Titus H. Mundine, an early leader in the Republican Party from Burleson County, brought up a proposition to allow every eligible voter the right to vote, regardless of sex during the 1868-1869 Texas Constitutional Convention.

[13] In April of 1893, Hayes and ten other women in Texas sent out invitations for a convention to be held to create a statewide women's suffrage group which would be called the Texas Equal Rights Association (TERA). Two years later T. H. McGregor of Austin introduced a similar resolution in the Texas Senate. [45] There was also a fear in white or Anglo Texas that allowing women to vote would lead to "black domination" of the state.

The National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage (NAOWS) was founded in the United States by women opposed to the suffrage movement in 1911.

[21] When the Texas Equal Suffrage Association (TESA) was formed in 1903, Black people were not encouraged to join. Jane Y. McCallum Papers, Austin History Center.

[32] There were around four hundred members of AWSA in November 1912, growing from only fifty-four in 1911, and the group "had distributed fifteen thousand pieces of literature". After her speech the state legislature defeated a proposed woman-suffrage amendment to the state constitution.

[54] Suffragists and suffrage organizations volunteered for the war effort.

[59] The registration started on June 27 and would end on July 11. [37] A booth was rented and decorated with white and yellow and pennants reading "Votes for Women. [93] The poll tax could equal a day's wages for many women. [36] In October of 1913, Suffragists began hosting activities in support of women's suffrage at the Texas State Fair. The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. In 1916, Wells and other women formed the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (TAOWS) in Houston. This handout from the national suffrage opposition organization, which warned women might place government under “petticoat rule” if they won the right to vote, was widely used by state affiliates. In January 1916, however, the National Woman's party (NWP) established a branch in Texas. [88] Idar and her brother, Eduardo Idar, printed pro-suffrage articles in their Laredo newspaper, the Evolución which they began in 1916. [53] In August, F. O. Fuller, the speaker of the Texas House of Representatives called a special session to consider impeaching Ferguson. The association specifically cited its intent to publish and circulate information against woman suffrage and to appeal to the "large majority of thinking women" opposed to female voting rights in Texas.

Texas history. Catt told Cunningham to discourage Sampson’s organization from joining TESA, which she did. Some opposed suffrage for religious reasons, or because they believed that giving women an equal voice in government would result in widespread neglect of woman’s primary responsibilities, which were the care of home and children. [96] There were plans to challenge the legal basis for the provision for women to vote in the primary. The leaders of the antisuffragists were Pauline Kleiber Wells of Brownsville and TAOWS publicity director Ida M. Darden. [41] Baker wrote: "Remember that the women are one-half of the human race, and, therefore, are entitled by inherent right to all the privileges accorded to men. Font size:

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry. [27][28], In 1907 Representative Jess A. Baker introduced women's suffrage as an amendment to the Texas constitution.

- The Movement Comes of Age - Page 4", "1915 to 1916 | Historical Timeline of the National Womans Party", "Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage", "Votes for Women! When the legislature convened in January 1919, Governor Hobby sent a message recommending that the Texas Constitution be amended to extend full suffrage to women. In 1901 Houstonian Annette Finnigan and her father John were listed as contributors to the New York Suffrage League, headed by NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt, and by 1902 Annette Finnigan was serving on the executive committee of the national association. [64] Over 386,000 women registered to vote during those 17 days before the vote on July 27. Public domain image. Further, the suffragists had been able political allies in the impeachment process the year before, and as such, the deal was made. While in communication with her, in 1907 Jess A. Baker of Granbury introduced a joint resolution in the Texas House of Representatives for women’s enfranchisement. [51] The El Paso Equal Franchise League protested his actions against UT, saying they didn't want the school to become "part of governor Ferguson's political or financial machine. [27] Finnigan retired from her work lobbying the Texas legislature in 1916 when she became partially paralyzed. Women were now a force in state politics. thesis, Texas A&M University-Commerce, 2018).

The arguments against suffrage varied. 1918 – The Texas Legislature enacted a law that permitted women to vote in primary elections. [27] Anti-suffragists considered the failure to pass the provision a victory, while suffrage groups argued that the measure failed because resident aliens didn't want to lose the right to vote and had voted against it. [85] It was also argued by anti-suffragists that "woman suffrage would result in Negro rule in those sections of the South where colored women outnumbered white women.

[74] President Wilson, Senator Charles Allen Culberson and Senator Morris Sheppard endorsed the referendum. Not all women gained the right to vote after the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.

[46][47] Clara Snell Wolfe and 100 other women established a Texas chapter of the NWP in 1916. In 1915 the opponents of women's enfranchisement organized the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (TAOWS).

Yes, I would like to begin receiving history-rich content, news, and updates from TSHA. These women created the Texas Equal Suffrage Association (TESA) in Houston in 1903. Since Texas was predominantly Democratic, primary suffrage was almost equivalent to full enfranchisement when electing officeholders. [71] TAOWS distributed more than 100,000 pieces of anti-suffrage literature opposing the measure. [5], Tunstall went on to become the vice president of the Texas chapter of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). [16], In the summer of 1894, suffragists attempted to get women's suffrage added as planks in the major political party platforms. | Suite 110 | Dallas, Texas 75206, Texas Women's Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization, “No Petticoat Rule”: The Texas Association Opposed to Equal Suffrage, https://live-txwf.pantheonsite.io/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/txwf-logo-stacked2.png, https://www.txwf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/anti-suffrage-pamphlet.jpg. [74] Both houses passed this measure, combining the enfranchisement of women with the disenfranchisement of aliens in one voter referendum.

[31] In addition, the effort helped revive interest in suffrage in Texas. As an active member Kalb participated in the U.S. capitol picket and was arrested during a watchfire demonstration … A couple of weeks ago, Texans exercised their right to vote in the primary election. They distributed large amounts of literature but did little organizing throughout the state. Sign up to receive updates on what you care about – advocacy, economic security or leadership – and for information on everything we’re working on! When former Confederate soldiers rebelled against Reconstruction laws in the 1890s, there was also a backlash against the idea of giving Black women the vote. [63] White primaries were created in 1923, excluding Black voters until they were overturned in 1944. [29] Mariana Thompson Folsom was working with Baker as an advisor on women's suffrage issues. [28] She was only able to set up a chapter in La Porte that year. There's some spooky history here in Texas. [82] Governor Hobby put the ratification of the amendment on the legislative agenda. [56] The war was one of the topics addressed at the TESA convention held in May of 1917 in Waco. [61] Dallas representative, Barry Miller only promised to support the provision if the Dallas Equal Suffrage Association (DESA) could get 5,000 signatures supporting the provision. [7], In 1884, minister and suffragist Mariana Thompson Folsom came to Texas. Then, in cooperation with NAWSA leaders to further woman suffrage in Texas, Finnigan and her sisters, Elizabeth Finnigan and Katherine Finnigan Anderson, organized the Equal Suffrage League of Houston in February 1903. As an independent republic and as a state in the United States, Texas granted women no voting rights. They distributed large amounts of literature but did little organizing throughout the state. [53] In Dallas, suffragists marched in the Patriotic Parade held on April 9, 1917. TESA, under the political leadership of Minnie Fisher Cunningham and with the support of Governor William P. Hobby, suffragists began to make further gains in achieving their goals. [6], In the second Texas Constitutional Convention held in 1875, women's suffrage was again introduced. [82] Cunningham was involved in helping to support the ratification effort in the West and the South for the federal women's suffrage amendment. In August 1918 Democratic conventions in 233 counties went on record in favor of woman suffrage, and in September the state Democratic convention endorsed it. “Woman Suffrage,” [1] In Dallas County, by 1916, there were thirteen local women's suffrage associations active. Members of TERA lobbied politicians and political party conventions on women's suffrage. Support the Handbook today. [49] TAOWS was led by Pauline Wells and published and distributed anti-suffrage fliers.[49]. NAOWS had influential local chapters in many states, including Texas and Virginia.

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Jane Y. McCallum Papers, Austin History Center. Titus H. Mundine, an early leader in the Republican Party from Burleson County, brought up a proposition to allow every eligible voter the right to vote, regardless of sex during the 1868-1869 Texas Constitutional Convention.

[13] In April of 1893, Hayes and ten other women in Texas sent out invitations for a convention to be held to create a statewide women's suffrage group which would be called the Texas Equal Rights Association (TERA). Two years later T. H. McGregor of Austin introduced a similar resolution in the Texas Senate. [45] There was also a fear in white or Anglo Texas that allowing women to vote would lead to "black domination" of the state.

The National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage (NAOWS) was founded in the United States by women opposed to the suffrage movement in 1911.

[21] When the Texas Equal Suffrage Association (TESA) was formed in 1903, Black people were not encouraged to join. Jane Y. McCallum Papers, Austin History Center.

[32] There were around four hundred members of AWSA in November 1912, growing from only fifty-four in 1911, and the group "had distributed fifteen thousand pieces of literature". After her speech the state legislature defeated a proposed woman-suffrage amendment to the state constitution.

[54] Suffragists and suffrage organizations volunteered for the war effort.

[59] The registration started on June 27 and would end on July 11. [37] A booth was rented and decorated with white and yellow and pennants reading "Votes for Women. [93] The poll tax could equal a day's wages for many women. [36] In October of 1913, Suffragists began hosting activities in support of women's suffrage at the Texas State Fair. The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. In 1916, Wells and other women formed the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (TAOWS) in Houston. This handout from the national suffrage opposition organization, which warned women might place government under “petticoat rule” if they won the right to vote, was widely used by state affiliates. In January 1916, however, the National Woman's party (NWP) established a branch in Texas. [88] Idar and her brother, Eduardo Idar, printed pro-suffrage articles in their Laredo newspaper, the Evolución which they began in 1916. [53] In August, F. O. Fuller, the speaker of the Texas House of Representatives called a special session to consider impeaching Ferguson. The association specifically cited its intent to publish and circulate information against woman suffrage and to appeal to the "large majority of thinking women" opposed to female voting rights in Texas.

Texas history. Catt told Cunningham to discourage Sampson’s organization from joining TESA, which she did. Some opposed suffrage for religious reasons, or because they believed that giving women an equal voice in government would result in widespread neglect of woman’s primary responsibilities, which were the care of home and children. [96] There were plans to challenge the legal basis for the provision for women to vote in the primary. The leaders of the antisuffragists were Pauline Kleiber Wells of Brownsville and TAOWS publicity director Ida M. Darden. [41] Baker wrote: "Remember that the women are one-half of the human race, and, therefore, are entitled by inherent right to all the privileges accorded to men. Font size:

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry. [27][28], In 1907 Representative Jess A. Baker introduced women's suffrage as an amendment to the Texas constitution.

- The Movement Comes of Age - Page 4", "1915 to 1916 | Historical Timeline of the National Womans Party", "Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage", "Votes for Women! When the legislature convened in January 1919, Governor Hobby sent a message recommending that the Texas Constitution be amended to extend full suffrage to women. In 1901 Houstonian Annette Finnigan and her father John were listed as contributors to the New York Suffrage League, headed by NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt, and by 1902 Annette Finnigan was serving on the executive committee of the national association. [64] Over 386,000 women registered to vote during those 17 days before the vote on July 27. Public domain image. Further, the suffragists had been able political allies in the impeachment process the year before, and as such, the deal was made. While in communication with her, in 1907 Jess A. Baker of Granbury introduced a joint resolution in the Texas House of Representatives for women’s enfranchisement. [51] The El Paso Equal Franchise League protested his actions against UT, saying they didn't want the school to become "part of governor Ferguson's political or financial machine. [27] Finnigan retired from her work lobbying the Texas legislature in 1916 when she became partially paralyzed. Women were now a force in state politics. thesis, Texas A&M University-Commerce, 2018).

The arguments against suffrage varied. 1918 – The Texas Legislature enacted a law that permitted women to vote in primary elections. [27] Anti-suffragists considered the failure to pass the provision a victory, while suffrage groups argued that the measure failed because resident aliens didn't want to lose the right to vote and had voted against it. [85] It was also argued by anti-suffragists that "woman suffrage would result in Negro rule in those sections of the South where colored women outnumbered white women.

[74] President Wilson, Senator Charles Allen Culberson and Senator Morris Sheppard endorsed the referendum. Not all women gained the right to vote after the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.

[46][47] Clara Snell Wolfe and 100 other women established a Texas chapter of the NWP in 1916. In 1915 the opponents of women's enfranchisement organized the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (TAOWS).

Yes, I would like to begin receiving history-rich content, news, and updates from TSHA. These women created the Texas Equal Suffrage Association (TESA) in Houston in 1903. Since Texas was predominantly Democratic, primary suffrage was almost equivalent to full enfranchisement when electing officeholders. [71] TAOWS distributed more than 100,000 pieces of anti-suffrage literature opposing the measure. [5], Tunstall went on to become the vice president of the Texas chapter of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). [16], In the summer of 1894, suffragists attempted to get women's suffrage added as planks in the major political party platforms. | Suite 110 | Dallas, Texas 75206, Texas Women's Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization, “No Petticoat Rule”: The Texas Association Opposed to Equal Suffrage, https://live-txwf.pantheonsite.io/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/txwf-logo-stacked2.png, https://www.txwf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/anti-suffrage-pamphlet.jpg. [74] Both houses passed this measure, combining the enfranchisement of women with the disenfranchisement of aliens in one voter referendum.

[31] In addition, the effort helped revive interest in suffrage in Texas. As an active member Kalb participated in the U.S. capitol picket and was arrested during a watchfire demonstration … A couple of weeks ago, Texans exercised their right to vote in the primary election. They distributed large amounts of literature but did little organizing throughout the state. Sign up to receive updates on what you care about – advocacy, economic security or leadership – and for information on everything we’re working on! When former Confederate soldiers rebelled against Reconstruction laws in the 1890s, there was also a backlash against the idea of giving Black women the vote. [63] White primaries were created in 1923, excluding Black voters until they were overturned in 1944. [29] Mariana Thompson Folsom was working with Baker as an advisor on women's suffrage issues. [28] She was only able to set up a chapter in La Porte that year. There's some spooky history here in Texas. [82] Governor Hobby put the ratification of the amendment on the legislative agenda. [56] The war was one of the topics addressed at the TESA convention held in May of 1917 in Waco. [61] Dallas representative, Barry Miller only promised to support the provision if the Dallas Equal Suffrage Association (DESA) could get 5,000 signatures supporting the provision. [7], In 1884, minister and suffragist Mariana Thompson Folsom came to Texas. Then, in cooperation with NAWSA leaders to further woman suffrage in Texas, Finnigan and her sisters, Elizabeth Finnigan and Katherine Finnigan Anderson, organized the Equal Suffrage League of Houston in February 1903. As an independent republic and as a state in the United States, Texas granted women no voting rights. They distributed large amounts of literature but did little organizing throughout the state. [53] In Dallas, suffragists marched in the Patriotic Parade held on April 9, 1917. TESA, under the political leadership of Minnie Fisher Cunningham and with the support of Governor William P. Hobby, suffragists began to make further gains in achieving their goals. [6], In the second Texas Constitutional Convention held in 1875, women's suffrage was again introduced. [82] Cunningham was involved in helping to support the ratification effort in the West and the South for the federal women's suffrage amendment. In August 1918 Democratic conventions in 233 counties went on record in favor of woman suffrage, and in September the state Democratic convention endorsed it. “Woman Suffrage,” [1] In Dallas County, by 1916, there were thirteen local women's suffrage associations active. Members of TERA lobbied politicians and political party conventions on women's suffrage. Support the Handbook today. [49] TAOWS was led by Pauline Wells and published and distributed anti-suffrage fliers.[49]. NAOWS had influential local chapters in many states, including Texas and Virginia.

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The question of women’s voting rights was raised during the Texas Constitutional Convention of 1868–69 when Titus H. Mundine of Burleson County proposed that the franchise be conferred upon qualified persons without distinction of sex. 1920 – On August 26, the Secretary of State quietly certified ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that granted women the right to vote—72 years after the 1848 Seneca Falls resolution that women should have the right to vote. [33] AWSA affiliated itself with NAWSA in 1909.

Finnigan and NAWSA organizer Perle Penfield led an active legislative lobbying campaign during the 1915 session in which the NAWSA practice of organizing suffrage work along state senatorial districts lines was implemented. [37], Finnigan took over the presidency of TESA again in 1914 and worked to lobby state lawmakers and support local groups.

[90] The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) and particularly, president of NAWSA, Carrie Chapman Catt, advised TESA to try to keep black women's voices out of the issue of promoting women's suffrage. In both Constitutional Conventions and subsequent legislative sessions, efforts to provide women the right to vote were introduced, only to be defeated. [35], Interviews with women in Texas reported by the Fort Worth Star-Telegram found that many women felt that "they are human beings and have a right to vote if they want to do so. Campbell Centre II | 8150 North Central Expy. When former Confederate soldiers rebelled against Reconstruction laws in the 1890s, there was also a backlash against the idea of giving Black women the vote. Opposition efforts certainly didn't aid the suffragists' cause: The Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage was formed in 1916, and Gov.

Jane Y. McCallum Papers, Austin History Center. Titus H. Mundine, an early leader in the Republican Party from Burleson County, brought up a proposition to allow every eligible voter the right to vote, regardless of sex during the 1868-1869 Texas Constitutional Convention.

[13] In April of 1893, Hayes and ten other women in Texas sent out invitations for a convention to be held to create a statewide women's suffrage group which would be called the Texas Equal Rights Association (TERA). Two years later T. H. McGregor of Austin introduced a similar resolution in the Texas Senate. [45] There was also a fear in white or Anglo Texas that allowing women to vote would lead to "black domination" of the state.

The National Association Opposed to Women Suffrage (NAOWS) was founded in the United States by women opposed to the suffrage movement in 1911.

[21] When the Texas Equal Suffrage Association (TESA) was formed in 1903, Black people were not encouraged to join. Jane Y. McCallum Papers, Austin History Center.

[32] There were around four hundred members of AWSA in November 1912, growing from only fifty-four in 1911, and the group "had distributed fifteen thousand pieces of literature". After her speech the state legislature defeated a proposed woman-suffrage amendment to the state constitution.

[54] Suffragists and suffrage organizations volunteered for the war effort.

[59] The registration started on June 27 and would end on July 11. [37] A booth was rented and decorated with white and yellow and pennants reading "Votes for Women. [93] The poll tax could equal a day's wages for many women. [36] In October of 1913, Suffragists began hosting activities in support of women's suffrage at the Texas State Fair. The Handbook of Texas is free-to-use thanks to the support of readers like you. In 1916, Wells and other women formed the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (TAOWS) in Houston. This handout from the national suffrage opposition organization, which warned women might place government under “petticoat rule” if they won the right to vote, was widely used by state affiliates. In January 1916, however, the National Woman's party (NWP) established a branch in Texas. [88] Idar and her brother, Eduardo Idar, printed pro-suffrage articles in their Laredo newspaper, the Evolución which they began in 1916. [53] In August, F. O. Fuller, the speaker of the Texas House of Representatives called a special session to consider impeaching Ferguson. The association specifically cited its intent to publish and circulate information against woman suffrage and to appeal to the "large majority of thinking women" opposed to female voting rights in Texas.

Texas history. Catt told Cunningham to discourage Sampson’s organization from joining TESA, which she did. Some opposed suffrage for religious reasons, or because they believed that giving women an equal voice in government would result in widespread neglect of woman’s primary responsibilities, which were the care of home and children. [96] There were plans to challenge the legal basis for the provision for women to vote in the primary. The leaders of the antisuffragists were Pauline Kleiber Wells of Brownsville and TAOWS publicity director Ida M. Darden. [41] Baker wrote: "Remember that the women are one-half of the human race, and, therefore, are entitled by inherent right to all the privileges accorded to men. Font size:

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry. [27][28], In 1907 Representative Jess A. Baker introduced women's suffrage as an amendment to the Texas constitution.

- The Movement Comes of Age - Page 4", "1915 to 1916 | Historical Timeline of the National Womans Party", "Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage", "Votes for Women! When the legislature convened in January 1919, Governor Hobby sent a message recommending that the Texas Constitution be amended to extend full suffrage to women. In 1901 Houstonian Annette Finnigan and her father John were listed as contributors to the New York Suffrage League, headed by NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt, and by 1902 Annette Finnigan was serving on the executive committee of the national association. [64] Over 386,000 women registered to vote during those 17 days before the vote on July 27. Public domain image. Further, the suffragists had been able political allies in the impeachment process the year before, and as such, the deal was made. While in communication with her, in 1907 Jess A. Baker of Granbury introduced a joint resolution in the Texas House of Representatives for women’s enfranchisement. [51] The El Paso Equal Franchise League protested his actions against UT, saying they didn't want the school to become "part of governor Ferguson's political or financial machine. [27] Finnigan retired from her work lobbying the Texas legislature in 1916 when she became partially paralyzed. Women were now a force in state politics. thesis, Texas A&M University-Commerce, 2018).

The arguments against suffrage varied. 1918 – The Texas Legislature enacted a law that permitted women to vote in primary elections. [27] Anti-suffragists considered the failure to pass the provision a victory, while suffrage groups argued that the measure failed because resident aliens didn't want to lose the right to vote and had voted against it. [85] It was also argued by anti-suffragists that "woman suffrage would result in Negro rule in those sections of the South where colored women outnumbered white women.

[74] President Wilson, Senator Charles Allen Culberson and Senator Morris Sheppard endorsed the referendum. Not all women gained the right to vote after the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.

[46][47] Clara Snell Wolfe and 100 other women established a Texas chapter of the NWP in 1916. In 1915 the opponents of women's enfranchisement organized the Texas Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (TAOWS).

Yes, I would like to begin receiving history-rich content, news, and updates from TSHA. These women created the Texas Equal Suffrage Association (TESA) in Houston in 1903. Since Texas was predominantly Democratic, primary suffrage was almost equivalent to full enfranchisement when electing officeholders. [71] TAOWS distributed more than 100,000 pieces of anti-suffrage literature opposing the measure. [5], Tunstall went on to become the vice president of the Texas chapter of the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). [16], In the summer of 1894, suffragists attempted to get women's suffrage added as planks in the major political party platforms. | Suite 110 | Dallas, Texas 75206, Texas Women's Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization, “No Petticoat Rule”: The Texas Association Opposed to Equal Suffrage, https://live-txwf.pantheonsite.io/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/txwf-logo-stacked2.png, https://www.txwf.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/anti-suffrage-pamphlet.jpg. [74] Both houses passed this measure, combining the enfranchisement of women with the disenfranchisement of aliens in one voter referendum.

[31] In addition, the effort helped revive interest in suffrage in Texas. As an active member Kalb participated in the U.S. capitol picket and was arrested during a watchfire demonstration … A couple of weeks ago, Texans exercised their right to vote in the primary election. They distributed large amounts of literature but did little organizing throughout the state. Sign up to receive updates on what you care about – advocacy, economic security or leadership – and for information on everything we’re working on! When former Confederate soldiers rebelled against Reconstruction laws in the 1890s, there was also a backlash against the idea of giving Black women the vote. [63] White primaries were created in 1923, excluding Black voters until they were overturned in 1944. [29] Mariana Thompson Folsom was working with Baker as an advisor on women's suffrage issues. [28] She was only able to set up a chapter in La Porte that year. There's some spooky history here in Texas. [82] Governor Hobby put the ratification of the amendment on the legislative agenda. [56] The war was one of the topics addressed at the TESA convention held in May of 1917 in Waco. [61] Dallas representative, Barry Miller only promised to support the provision if the Dallas Equal Suffrage Association (DESA) could get 5,000 signatures supporting the provision. [7], In 1884, minister and suffragist Mariana Thompson Folsom came to Texas. Then, in cooperation with NAWSA leaders to further woman suffrage in Texas, Finnigan and her sisters, Elizabeth Finnigan and Katherine Finnigan Anderson, organized the Equal Suffrage League of Houston in February 1903. As an independent republic and as a state in the United States, Texas granted women no voting rights. They distributed large amounts of literature but did little organizing throughout the state. [53] In Dallas, suffragists marched in the Patriotic Parade held on April 9, 1917. TESA, under the political leadership of Minnie Fisher Cunningham and with the support of Governor William P. Hobby, suffragists began to make further gains in achieving their goals. [6], In the second Texas Constitutional Convention held in 1875, women's suffrage was again introduced. [82] Cunningham was involved in helping to support the ratification effort in the West and the South for the federal women's suffrage amendment. In August 1918 Democratic conventions in 233 counties went on record in favor of woman suffrage, and in September the state Democratic convention endorsed it. “Woman Suffrage,” [1] In Dallas County, by 1916, there were thirteen local women's suffrage associations active. Members of TERA lobbied politicians and political party conventions on women's suffrage. Support the Handbook today. [49] TAOWS was led by Pauline Wells and published and distributed anti-suffrage fliers.[49]. NAOWS had influential local chapters in many states, including Texas and Virginia.

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