Terms of Service |  The First Dynasty ruled from around 3150 to 2890 BC. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC. It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist. The last native pharaoh of Egypt was Nectanebo II, who was pharaoh before the Achaemenids conquered Egypt for a second time. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius who died in 251 CE. South Saqqara Stone (discovered 1923, includes dyn. The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed).

The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty. Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Ephemeral coregent with his brother Neferhotep I, may not have reigned independently. The position of the following pharaohs are uncertain: The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. Reign dates do not follow Turin Canon.


After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty: The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. Ausgabe 2012, S. 381–395. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The Late Period runs from around 664 to 332 BC, and includes periods of rule by native Egyptians and Persians. The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC. After 20 to 45 years, they were overthrown by a new line of pharaohs based in Herakleopolis Magna. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II. Sustainability Policy |  The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. Founded the 13th Dynasty. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt.

Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties. Saqqara Tablet (discovered 1861, includes dyn.

Only known from artifacts that bear his mark, around 3250–3220 BC.

Explorers and archaeologists have discovered these tombs and learned a great deal about ancient Egyptian society from them. It is here given as per Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed. Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty.
As ancient Egyptian rulers, pharaohs were both the heads of state and the religious leaders of their people. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty.

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